Part of: Financing Sustainable Urban Development: An Introduction

Investing in energy

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Improving energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy sources requires investment. Buildings, transport, and industry on average represent 70–80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. Investments in electricity transmission and distribution are also needed to extend access and reduce losses (UN Environment 2017).

The Share of Electricity in Energy Consumption Will Double by 2050

CAGR=Compound annual growth rate. Source: McKinsey Energy Insights 2019 
  • Electricity consumption is projected to double by 2050. Cities must shift to renewable energy sources to generate electricity. They will also need to manage capital and lifecycle costs more effectively.
  • Building retrofits and electric buses save energy costs over time. However, the initial capital costs of electric buses are currently higher than those of diesel fuel buses and the operation and maintenance costs are unclear for newer technologies.