Push strategies (“sticks”) seek to deter people from using individual cars and motorcycles by making it less attractive and/or more expensive to use them. Common push strategies are:
Pull strategies (“carrots”) aim to attract people to more sustainable modes of transport. These strategies focus on enhancing:
While push strategies reduce the use of cars, pull strategies bring forward more sustainable options.
Both strategies focus on transportation issues, but cities can also manage the demand through better urban planning policies.