Part of: Toward Efficient Informal Urban Transit

Further Reading

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Coming Soon 

The next guide in this series will look at the advantages and disadvantages of informal transit systems from the perspective of users, governments and operators.


Behrens, R., D. McCormick, & Mfinanga, D. 2015. Paratransit in African cities: Operations, regulation and reform.  London: Routledge. www.routledge.com/Paratransit-in-African-Cities-Operations-Regulation-and-Reform-1st-Edition/Behrens-McCormick-Mfinanga/p/book/9780415870337.

CDIA (Cities Development Initiative for Asia). 2011. Informal public transportation networks in three Indonesian cities. Asian Development Bank. http://cdia.asia/publication/informal-public-transportation-networks-in-three-indonesian-cities.

Cervero, R., & Golub, A. 2007. Informal transport: A global perspective. Transport Policy 14(6): 445-57. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289661223_Informal_public_transport_A_global_perspective.

Errázuriz, T., & Giucci, G. 2016. The Ambiguities of Progress: Cultural appropriation of electric trams in the Southern Cone, 1890-1950 (Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil). Icon22, 55-77. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44242741.

Godard, Xavier. 2006. Coping with paratransit in developing cities: A scheme of complementarity with institutional transport. Paper presented at Future Urban Transport Conference, Gothenberg, Sweden. Volvo Foundation for the Future of Urban Transport. 

Gwilliam, K.M. 2008. Bus transport: Is there a regulatory cycle? Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 42, 1183–194. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222517355_Bus_transport_Is_there_a_regulatory_cycle.

Jennings, G., and Behrens, R. 2017. The case for investing in paratransit: Strategies for regulation and reform. Volvo Research and Education Foundation (VREF). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317357984_The_Case_for_Investing_in_Paratransit_Strategies_for_regulation_and_reform.

Levinson, D., Marshall, W., & Axhausen, K. 2017. Elements of access: Transport planning for engineers, Transport engineering for planners. Blurb Books. https://www.amazon.com/Elements-Access-Transport-Engineers-Engineering/dp/1981865187.

Mani, A., Pai, M., & Aggarwal, R. 2012. Sustainable urban transport in India: Role of the auto-rickshaw sector. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. https://wriorg.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/pdf/sustainable_urban_transport_india.pdf

Reiss, A. 2014. New York’s shadow transit. The New Yorkerhttps://projects.newyorker.com/story/nyc-dollar-vans.

Rosenthal, A. 2015. The streetcar in the urban imaginary of Latin America. Journal of Urban History, 42(1), 162–79. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0096144214566972.

Rothboeck, S., & King, T. 2014. Promoting transition towards formalization: Selected good practices in four sectors. New Delhi: International Labour Organization for South Asia and Country Office for India. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—asia/—ro-bangkok/—sro-new_delhi/documents/publication/wcms_344607.pdf.

Salazar Ferro, P. 2015. Paratransit: A key element in a dual system. CODATU and Agence Française de Développement (AFD). http://www.codatu.org/wp-content/uploads/transports_collec_artisanal_V03ecran_EN.pdf.

Venter, C., A. Mahendra, and D. Hidalgo. 2019. “From Mobility to Access for All: Expanding Urban Transportation Choices in the Global South.” Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Available online at www.citiesforall.org.