Part of: Urban Forests for Healthier Cities: Policy, Planning, Regulations, and Institutional Arrangements


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  • Equity: The absence of avoidable or remediable differences among groups of people, whether those people are defined socially, economically, demographically, or geographically. (WHO, n.d.)
  • Participatory Planning: Joint actions of local people and project staff with the objective of formulating development plans and selecting the best available alternatives for their implementation. It should be a two-way learning process of dialogue, negotiation and decision-making between insiders and outsiders, concerning activities to be undertaken by the insiders and supported by the outsiders. It is thus conceptualized in terms of what can be called a “negotiating dialogue” between local people and project staff, aimed at conforming project support to local needs, constraints and opportunities. Simply stated, participatory planning is an effort of the parties involved to elaborate a common agenda for future development actions.
  • Resiliency: “cities that have the ability to absorb, recover and prepare for future shicks (economic, environmental, social & institutional). Resilient cities promote sustainable development, well-being and inclusive growth” (OECD, 2019)