The type and amount of ecosystem services urban forests provide depend on many factors. Climate, geography, and even cultural or individual preferences can affect whether these services are considered benefits or dis-benefits (costs). (Escobedo, Kroeger, & Wagner, 2011)
Planning, decision-making, and implementation related to urban forests should be participatory and inclusive in approach. (Carter, 1995; Nesbitt et al, 2018) Although this can be challenging, it is necessary to understand which services communities need and want and to reduce the potential for increasing disparities in health, safety, and economic opportunity. (Carter, 1995; Nesbitt et al, 2018) Whether efforts are top-down or grassroots, a multi-pronged approach that involves all relevant stakeholders and multiple interventions may deliver more benefits.