Instruments like forest sustainability certifications and eco-labeling can help identify sustainable sources of forest products and thereby forest conservation. However, high costs of obtaining these credentials may be prohibitive for many small and medium-sized enterprises. (Macqueen, Dufey, & Patel, 2006) Compensating or subsidizing smaller enterprises or collectives to meet sustainability standards, or direct farm-to-buyer relationships can help address these barriers.
How cities can support procurement decisions. Image: Cities4Forests, 2020.
Applying fair trade social standards to procured products can also make urban supply chains more equitable.