First half of 20th Century
- Colonial governments provided scheduled public transport through public monopolies.
- Most transit was by bus, though some countries had rail.
Second half of 20th Century
- After independence, formal transit operations became unsustainable due to population growth, limited road capacity, increasing operating costs, and fare caps.
- In the absence of regulations, paratransit services using small buses were established by individual owners and self-organized transport associations to meet the demand.
- Formal systems deteriorated and many disappeared in Sub-Saharan African cities.
- Paratransit replaced public transport in many cities.
- The term paratransit is catching on in other world regions to describe informal transit, “para” meaning “to go beyond or further than normal.”